1.中國國家圖書館(the National Library of China)


TheNational Library of China is a comprehensive research library, anational repository of the home publications, a national bibliographiccenter, a national center of library information networks, and thelibrary research and development center. The Library serves for centrallegislature, government, key research institutions, academy, education,business and the general public. The Library is responsible forimplementing the official cultural agreements and conductscommunication and cooperation with the libraries both at home andabroad. The Library has a rich collection of 22,400,000 volumes,ranking fifth in the libraries of the world. In the collection thereare 270,000 volumes of rare books; 1,600,000 volumes of general ancientbooks; 35,000 pieces of the scripted turtle shells and animal bones.The Library not only has the largest collection of Chinese books in theworld, but also the biggest collection of materials in foreignlanguages in the country. It has a strong collection in thosematerials, such as manuscripts of the notables, revolutionaryhistorical materials, Chinese doctoral dissertations, the UNpublications and the increased number of e-publications.

2.柏林国家图书馆(the Berlin State Library)


Alsgrößte Universalbibliothek Deutschlands ist die Staatsbibliothek einZentrum der nationalen Literaturversorgung. Der Schwerpunkt ihres 10Millionen Bände umfassenden internationalen Druckschriftenbestandesliegt in den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften. Ihre bedeutendenSammlungen, darunter herausragende Handschriften, Musikalien,Orientalia, Ostasiatica und Karten sowie ein umfangreicher Bestandhistorischer Drucke prägen ebenso wie ihre vielfältigen internationalenDienstleistungen das besondere Ansehen der Bibliothek weit über dieGrenzen Deutschlands hinaus.

3.不列顛圖書館(The British Library)


TheBritish Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and oneof the world´s greatest libraries. Our vision is to make the world´sintellectual, scientific and cultural heritage accessible, and to bringthe collections of the British Library to everyone - at work, school,college or home. · We receive a copy of every publication produced inthe UK and Ireland The collection includes 150 million items, in mostknown languages · 3 million new items are incorporated every year · Wehouse manuscripts, maps, newspapers, magazines, prints and drawings,music scores, and patents · The Sound Archive keeps sound recordingsfrom 19th-century cylinders to the latest CD, DVD and minidiscrecordings · We house 8 million stamps and other philatelic items ·These require over 625 km of shelves, and grow 12km every year · If yousee 5 items today, it would take you 80,000 years to see the whole ofthe collection · The earliest dated printed book, the Diamond Sutra,can be seen in our exhibition galleries alongside many other nationaltreasures · We have on-site space for over 1,200 readers · Over 16,000people use the collections each day · Online catalogues, informationand exhibitions can be found on this website · We operate the world´slargest document delivery service providing some 4 million items a yearto customers all over the world

4.美國國會圖書館(The Library of Congress)


TheLibrary of Congress is the nation´s oldest federal culturalinstitution, and it serves as the research arm of Congress. It is alsothe largest library in the world, with more than 126 million items onapproximately 530 miles of bookshelves. The collections include nearly19 million books, 2.6 million recordings, 12 million photographs, 4.8million maps, and 56 million manuscripts.

5.法蘭西國家圖書館(The Bibliothèque nationale de France)


In1368, Charles V, "the Wise", had his own personal library moved intothe Louvre, in the Tour de la Fauconnerie. The inventory drawn up byGilles Malet, guardian of the library, shows that the collectioncontained nine hundred and seventeen manuscripts. In those days,however, royal collections were transient in nature as they wereirretrievably dispersed on their owner´s death. It was not until LouisXI, who reigned from 1461 to 1483 and was the true founder of theBibliothèque Nationale, that continuity was established - reflectingthe continuity of the royal dynasty. His son Charles VIII, followed byLouis XII, subsequently added more early manuscripts as well as thefirst printed books brought back from the Italian campaigns. Thecollection was never again to be dispersed.The library continued toexpand throughout the twentieth century, with three annexes built inVersailles in 1934, 1954 and 1971, the opening of a new catalogue andbibliography room (1935 - 1937) and a periodicals reading room (1936),the installation of the Engravings department next to the Hôtel Tubeuf(1946) and the transfer of maps and plans to the Hôtel Tubeuf (1954).In 1958, the central printed materials stockrooms were raised and aspecialist Oriental Manuscripts department created. New premises werebuilt at 2, rue Louvois in Paris to house the Music Department andSound Archives (1964). Administrative departments were housed in a newoffice building in1973, and in 1985, several buildings on either sideof the Galerie Colbert at 2-4 rue de Vivienne were converted toaccommodate the computer department and administrative facilities forincoming printed material.

6.西班牙国家图书馆(La Biblioteca Nacional)


Itwas founded by Felipe V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. Precedingtoday´s legal deposit, a royal charter obliged printers to deposit acopy of the books printed in Spain. In 1836, the Library passed out ofthe monarchy´s hands and came under the control of the Ministry ofGovernment, receiving the name of Biblioteca Nacional for the firsttime. Throughout the 19th century, most of the old and valuable booksnow possessed by the Biblioteca Nacional were purchased, donated ordeposited there after having been seized.The Biblioteca Nacional, theHighest Library Institution of the State and Head of the SpanishLibraries System, in accordance with the provisions of Art. 97 of theLaw 31/1990, of 27th December, relating to the General State Budget for1991, is an Autonomous Body of administrative character included amongthose which are referred to in section a) number 1 of Article 4. of therevised text of the Law 11/1977, of 4th January, regarding the GeneralBudget, approved by Royal Legislative Decree 1091/1988, of 23rdSeptember, and is attached to the Ministry of Culture, by means of theDirectorate General of Books and Libraries, which has the right, apartfrom other legally designated functions, to supervise and, withoutdetriment to any other powers it may hold, monitor efficiency, inaccordance with current regulations.Two. The Biblioteca Nacional hasits own legal personality and capacity to act in order to fulfill itsobjectives, and is governed by the provisions established in the LegalFramework Law regarding Autonomous State Bodies, of 26th December 1958,in the General Budget Law, in the Spanish Historical Heritage Law, inthe current regulations concerning state-owned Libraries and in anyother provisions which apply to Autonomous Bodies.


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